Steel Image

Industry Giants In Balustrading and Staircases


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SANS CODES SUMMARY – Information : (not limited to) 

All the contents extracted from SANS


SANS 10104: Hand railing and Balustrade
SANS 10400: Architects code to design Buildings
SANS 10160: Engineers code to design structural elements of building
SANS 10137: Installation of Glazing in Buildings

SABS 10104 Edition 2 1991 – Handrailing and Balustrading (safety aspects)
SANS 10400-A: 2011 Edition 3 – NBR – General Principals and Requirements
SANS 10400-B: 2012 Edition 3 – NBR- Structural design
SANS 10400-D: 2011 Edition 3 – NBR- Public safety
SANS 10400-M: 2011 Edition 3 – NBR- Stairways
SANS 10400-N: 2010 Edition 3 – NBR- Glazing
SANS 10400-S: 2011 Edition 3 – NBR-Facilities for persons with disabilities
SANS 10400-T: 2011 Edition 3 – NBR-Fire protection
SANS 10160-2: 2011 Edition 1.1 – Self -weight and imposed loads
SANS 10160-3: 2011 Edition 1.1 – Wind actions 
SANS 10137: 2011 Edition 4-The installation of glazing in buildings
SANS 1263-1:2006 Edition 3.1-Part 1: Safety performance of glazing materials under human impact

SANS 10400-A 

a Competent person (3.7) must prepare a rational design for any Building solution used within a building (4). Balustrades and Handrails are important structural components critical to the safety of a buildings users. Because of their aesthetic value this is mostly overlooked and the building industry as well as the building inspectors do not demand the proper design and sign off required by law.
Steel Image has gone through the arduous and costly process of ensuring all our balustrade designs fully comply with SANS 10400 (architectural), 10160 (structural design), SANS 10137 (glass) and 10104 (hand railing and Balustrade). Each and every Steel Image installation comes with an Engineers certificate stating such. 
Unfortunately not all balustrade companies have done the same and for the sake of public safety we would like to bring the following to Architects, Builders, Inspectors, Engineers and property owner’s attention.
SANS 10104
Hand railing and Balustrade shall be designed and installed that it safely supports all loads to which it is likely to be subjected during service (4.1)
Balustrade in a harsh environment shall be designed to resist corrosion (7.1). Balustrade should be inspected for evidence of wear and tear or reduced strength and replaced or renewed if 20% weaker than original installation. (4.7.2)
  • The height of balustrade shall not be less than 1m (5.1)
  • In public places there shall be no gap bigger than 100mm (5.2.1)
  • The finish of handrail should be smooth (5.4)
  • It should be visible from at least 7.5m away (5.5)
  • Glass should be compliant with SANS 0137 (5.7) 


Hand railing shall be so installed that the vertical sag of any of its elements does not exceed 50 mm. When a load of 1,5 A is applied at any point and in any direction on any element of the hand railing for a period of 1 h, the total deflection of that point (including sag) while under load shall not exceed 100 mm.(4.6)
SANS 10160
  • A structure or element must remain fit for its intended purpose throughout its working life (0.2)
  • A structure or element must be able to withstand abnormal events (0.3)
  • Testing of a design may be done if calculations are not available or if there are doubts about compliance during construction, (9.1)
  • There are design forces that a balustrade has to be designed for (9.4)
  • Balustrades also need to undergo human impact testing to ensure their compliance (9.7)
SANS 10400
also has further requirements regarding balustrade:
  • Any bridge, balcony or flat roof witch is accessible needs balustrade being at least 1m high. (D 4.2.2)
  • Any mezzanine floor or interior balcony requires Balustrade being at least 1m high, although balustrade may be shorter [min 800mm] if in front of public seating in rows.(D 4.2.3)
  • A change of level, in occupancy classes E2, E3, E4, H1, H2, H3, H4 or H5 (see attached list) requires protection in the form of a wall or balustrade with no opening allowing the passage of a 100mmm ball. Such balustrade in any other occupancy class shall consist of at least one handrail and one other rail midway between the handrail and floor.(D 4.2.4)
  • Pools must be closed off from public access with fences and gates. Balustrade may be used but must be no lower than 1.2m and a 100mm ball cannot pass through any opening.(10400-D 4.4)
Stairways and hand railing
  •  Any flight of stairs which contains more than five risers needs one continuous handrail unless occupancy class of H3 or H4.(M 4.3.2)
  • A handrail is required if the width of the staircase is less than 1.1m and a handrail is required on both sides if staircase is wider than 1.1m.(M 4.3.3)
  • There must be no obstructions to hand movement on the hand railing and hand railing must be between 850mm and 1m above pitch line of staircase.(M 4.3.3)
  • Disability access and B.H.(10400-S 4.7-4.10):
  • In order for a building to be deemed accessible to the disabled the B.H. must comply with the following:
  • A change of level of more than 600mm requires a handrail.(4.7.3)
  • Ramps for wheelchair access need hand railing on both sides. If the width is greater than 2.4m a central hand railing must be installed.(4.8.2)
  • The gripping surface of handrails need to be of a certain profile.( 4.10.a,b)
  • If gripping surface is elliptical it needs to be at least 50mm wide and 40mm deep and if the profile is circular the diameter must be no less than 35mm and not more than 50mm.( 4.10.a,b)
  • The height to the top of the handrail from nosing or ramp surface must be between 900mm and a 1000mm and remain consistent throughout the length of the handrail. .( 4.10.a,b)
  • Handrails must be securely fixed and rigid. .( 4.10.c)
  • The handrails or any adjacent surfaces must be free of sharp or abrasive elements. .( 4.10.d)
  • The width between the handrail and wall must be at least 60mm.( 4.10.e)
  • Handrails must extend at least 300mm horizontally beyond the top and bottom of a stairway or ramp. .( 4.10.f)
  • Handrails must be continuous between landings as long as this does not create a hazard. .( 4.10.g)
  • Handrails must be supported centrally from below with no less than 50mm between the underside of handrail and the top of the support. (4.10.h)
  • Stairways wider than 2.4m require a handrail every 2.4m. .( 4.10.i)
  • Passenger lifts require handrails on all sides with a height of between 850mm and 1000mm above floor level of lift. .( 4.11.2.c)
  • Wheelchair accessible toilet doors need grab rails on the inside of the door. .( 4.12.2.a)
  • Wheelchair accessible toilets need grab rails on one side and the rear. .( 4.12.2.m)
  • The grab rails must have a diameter between 32mm and 38mm.(4.12.2.m)
  • Handrails may not protrude into emergency staircase by more than 100mm.


According to SANS 10137:
Balustrades using glazing have more design specifications due to their nature. The glazing must comply with the following:


  • Glass in balustrades shall be toughened safety glass unless rigidly supported on all sides
  • Specialized plastic glazing may be used in balustrades e.g. polycarbonate
  • Glazing must be SANS 1263 compliant 
  • Safety marks (SANS 10137 and SANS 1263) must be visible on every pane after installation.
  • Glazing and fixings should be suitable for environment (must resist brine, moisture, heat or other environmental factors).


Most of these Requirements are easy to check with just a tape measure but the impact testing and proper design loads can only be determined by an engineer and that is why an Engineer Compliance Certificate is required. 

All of these rules should be of utmost importance to any building owner (Old or new) as non-compliance could cause death or injury and balustrade company’s, inspectors, engineers and architects are not fully aware of all requirements.